Explainable AI using visual Machine Learning

The InterConnect project gathers 50 European entities to develop and demonstrate advanced solutions for connecting and converging digital homes and buildings with the electricity sector. Machine Learning (ML) algorithms play a significant role in the InterConnect project. Most prominent are the services that do some kind of forecasting like predicting energy consumption for (Smart) devices and households in general. The SAREF ontology allows us to standardize input formats for common ML approaches and that explainability can be increased by selecting algorithms that inherently have these features (e.g. Decision Trees) and by using interactive web environments like Jupyter Notebooks a convenient solution for users is created where step by step the algorithmic procedures can be followed and visualized and forms an implementation example for explainable AI.

Read more, and watch our live demonstration video on the InterConnect project page.

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Simulating creativity in GANs with IoT

[This blog post is based on the Artificial Intelligence MSc thesis project from Fay Beening, supervised by myself and Joost de Boo, more information can be found on Fay’s website]

Recently, generative art has been one of the fields where AI, especially deep learning has caught the public eye. Algorithms and online tools such as Dall-E are able to produce astounding results based on large artistic datasets. One class of algorithms that has been at the root of this success is the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), frequently used in online art-generating tools because of their ability to produce realistic artefacts.

but, is this “””real””” art? is this “””real””” creativity?

To address this, Fay investigated current theories on art and art education and found that these imply that true human creativity can be split into three types: 1) combinational, 2) explorative and 3) transformative creativity but that it also requires real-world experiences and interactions with people and the environment. Therefore, Fay in her thesis proposes to combine the GAN with an Internet of Things (IoT) setup to make it behave more creative.

Arduin-based prototype (image from Fay’s thesis)

She then designed a system that extends the original GAN with an interactive IoT system (implemented in an Arduino-based prototype) to simulate a more creative process. The prototype of the design showed a successful implementation of creative behaviour that can react to the environment and gradually change the direction of the generated images.

Images shown to the participant during the level of creativity task. Images 2 and 6 are creative GAN generated images. Images 1 and 5 are human-made art. Images 3 and 4 are online GAN generated art.

The generated art was evaluated based on their creativity by doing task-based interviews with domain experts. The results show that the the level to which the generated images are considered to be creative depends heavily on the participant’s view of creativity.

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Interconnect Project kickoff

On 1 October 2019, the Horizon2020 Interconnect project has started. The goal of this huge and ambitious project is to achieve a relevant milestone in the democratization of efficient energy management, through a flexible and interoperable ecosystem where distributed energy resources can be soundly integrated with effective benefits to end-users.

To this end, its 51 partners (!) will develop an interoperable IOT and smart-grid infrastructure, based on Semantic technologies, that includes various end-user services. The results will be validated using 7 pilots in EU member states, including one in the Netherlands with 200 appartments.

The role of VU is to develop in close collaboration with TNO extend and validating the SAREF ontology for IOT as well as and other relevant ontologies. VU will lead a task on developing Machine Learning solutions on Knowledge graphs and extend the solutions towards usable middle layers for User-centric ML services in the pilots, specifically in the aforementioned Dutch pilot, where VU will collaborate with TNO and VolkerWessel iCity and Hyrde.

Interconnect team photo, taken at the location of the kickoff meeting: the FC Porto stadium

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